West Virginia is unique among states in its pattern of community development, a pattern largely determined by mountainous terrain and the availability of resources such as oil, salt, coal, and timber.
The smallest unit of local government recognized in West Virginia is the incorporated community or municipality, also known as a town or city. Towns and cities operate independently of the counties in which they are located and maintain their own governments.
West Virginia is divided into 55 counties, most of which were established before West Virginia was created in 1863. Most county bounds encircle a territory principally defined by ridges and river drainage areas. Most counties in West Virginia are relatively rural.
West Virginia has been divided into many complex regions over time and by different agencies. Our editorial department has arranged the state into 12 regions based on cultural patterns and geographic determinants.
Patterns of Community Growth in West Virginia
As might be expected, the most populous communities in West Virginia — Wheeling, Charleston, Huntington, Parkersburg, and Morgantown — developed along rivers, which accommodated transportation and water power. Extractive industries, such as mining and timbering, saw the birth of communities that quickly waxed and waned, most particularly in rugged mountain regions. Many of these latter communities are now ghost towns, and others have entirely disappeared.
Two official forms of community that are recognized by West Virginia law are counties and incorporated communities, also known as towns or cities.
Ethnic Communities in West Virginia
The first European settlers in West Virginia were most usually of Scots, English, and Scots-Irish descent. During the American Industrial Revolution, Africans and Europeans of many ethnic origins arrived to work in mines and factories in its northern and southern coalfields. As a result, West Virginia is home to many diverse ethnic communities.